This prospective, controlled study was performed in order to evaluate whether the location of uterine fibroids may influence reproductive function in women and whether removal of the fibroid prior to conception may improve pregnancy rate and pregnancy maintenance. We examined 181 women affected by uterine fibroids who had been trying to conceive for at least 1 year without success. The main outcome measures were the pregnancy rate and the miscarriage rate. Among the patients who underwent myomectomy, the pregnancy rates obtained were 43.3% in cases of submucosal, 56.5% in cases of intramural, 40.0% in cases of submucosal-intramural and 35.5% in cases of intramural-subserosal uterine fibroids, respectively. Among the patients who did not undergo surgical treatment, the pregnancy rates obtained were 27.2% in women with submucosal, 41.0% in women with intramural, 15.0% in women with submucosal-intramural and 21.43% in women with intramural-subserosal uterine fibroids, respectively. Although the results were not statistically significant in the group of women with intramural and intramural-subserosal fibroids, this study confirms the important role of the position of the uterine fibroid in infertility as well as the importance of fibroids removal before the achievement of a pregnancy, to improve both the chances of fertilization and pregnancy maintenance.