The FATC domains of PIKK proteins are functionally equivalent and participate in the Tip60-dependent activation of DNA-PKcs and ATM

J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 9;281(23):15741-6. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M513172200. Epub 2006 Apr 9.


Members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family, including the ATM, DNA-PKcs, Atr, and Trrap proteins, function in signal transduction pathways that activate the DNA damage response. PIKK proteins contain a conserved C-terminal FAT/kinase domain/FATC domain structure. The FATC domain of ATM mediates the interaction between ATM and Tip60, a histone acetyltransferase that regulates activation of ATM. Here, we examined whether the FATC domains of DNA-PKcs, Atr, and Trrap were also able to interact with Tip60. Deletion of the FATC domain of ATM blocked the interaction between ATM and Tip60 and suppressed the activation of ATM kinase activity by DNA damage. Replacement of the FATC domain of ATM with the FATC domains of DNA-PKcs, Atr, or Trrap restored the activation of ATM and its association with Tip60. These results indicate that the FATC domains of DNA-PKcs, Atr, Trrap, and ATM are functionally equivalent. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that Tip60 is constitutively associated with DNA-PKcs and that the histone acetyltransferase activity associated with DNA-PKcs is up-regulated by DNA damage. When Tip60 expression was suppressed by small interfering RNA, the activation of DNA-PKcs (measured by autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at serine 2056 and threonine 2609) was inhibited, demonstrating a key role for Tip60 in the activation of DNA-PKcs by DNA damage. The conserved FATC domain of PIKK proteins may therefore function as a binding domain for the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase. Further, the ability of Tip60 to regulate the activation of both ATM and DNA-PKcs in response to DNA damage demonstrates that Tip60 is a key component of the DNA damage-signaling network.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Histone Acetyltransferases / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Lysine Acetyltransferase 5
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Proteins / chemistry
  • Proteins / physiology*
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism*


  • CIB1 protein, human
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • KAT5 protein, human
  • Lysine Acetyltransferase 5
  • ATM protein, human
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases