Leptin and adiponectin in relation to body fat percentage, waist to hip ratio and the apoB/apoA1 ratio in Asian Indian and Caucasian men and women

Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006 Apr 10;3:18. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-3-18.


Background: Asian Indian immigrants have an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, there is very little data examining how the adipokines leptin and adiponectin relate to CVD risk factors such as body fat percentage (BF%), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and the apoB/apoA1 ratio in Asian Indian men and women living in Canada.

Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study comparing leptin, adiponectin, lipoproteins and anthropometric parameters in Asian Indian men and women to Caucasian men and women (4 groups). Anthropometric data (BMI, BF%, WHR), circulating lipids (apoA1, apoB, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol), leptin and adiponectin were measured.

Results: Asian Indian men and women had higher leptin and lower adiponectin concentrations then Caucasian men and women, respectively. Leptin (positively) and adiponectin (negatively) correlated with anthropometric parameters and lipoproteins in all four groups. Using stepwise forward multiple regression, a model including TC/HDL-C ratio, WHR, BF%, hip circumference and waist circumference predicted 74.2% of leptin concentration in men. In women, apoB, BF%, waist circumference and age predicted 77.5% of leptin concentration. Adiponectin concentrations in men were predicted (30.2%) by HDL-C, total cholesterol, hip circumference and BF% while in women 41.2% of adiponectin concentration was predicted by the apoB/apoA1 ratio, WHR and age.

Conclusion: As is evident from our data, there is a strong relationship between leptin, adiponectin, and abdominal obesity with increased CVD risk, as assessed by the apoB/apoA1 ratio. Dysregulation of these parameters may account for the increased risk of CVD in Asian Indians.