EGFR and erbB-2 are targets for specific cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and clinicopathological correlations of gene amplification, protein expression, and mutations of EGFR and ERBB2 in serous carcinoma, the most common and aggressive type of ovarian cancer. Tissue microarray constructed of 398 carcinomas was examined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and by immunohistochemistry. Cases with amplification of EGFR by CISH were further analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. One hundred ninety-eight samples were analyzed for mutations in exons 18, 19, or 21 of EGFR and in exon 20 of ERBB2 using denaturating high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. Amplification of EGFR was present in 12% (41/333), low-level gain in 43% (144/333), and protein overexpression in 17% (66/379) of the tumors. Both increased copy number and overexpression of EGFR were associated with high tumor grade, greater patient age, large residual tumor size, high proliferation index, aberrant p53, and poor patient outcome. Furthermore, increased copy number of EGFR was associated with increased copy number of ERBB2. No mutations were identified in EGFR, whereas one tumor had an insertion mutation in exon 20 of ERBB2. Both amplification and protein overexpression of EGFR occur in serous ovarian carcinoma, but EGFR copy number has a stronger prognostic value. This makes EGFR amplification a potentially useful criterion for selecting patients in clinical trials testing the effect of EGFR inhibitors in serous ovarian carcinoma.