Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is estimated to be present in 50% of people living with diabetes mellitus (DM). Comorbidities of DM, such as macrovascular and microvascular changes, also Interact with DPN and affect its course. In patients with DM, DPN Is the leading cause of foot ulcers, which in turn are a major cause of amputation in the United States. Although most patients with DPN do not have pain, approximately 11% of patients with DPN have chronic, painful symptoms that diminish quality of life, disrupt sleep, and can lead to depression. Despite the number of patients affected by DPN pain, little consensus exists about the pathophysiology, best diagnostic tools, and primary treatment choices. This article reviews the current knowledge about and presents recommendations for diagnostic assessment of DPN pain based on a review of the literature.