After more than three decades of its declaration, the war against cancer still appears far from being won. Although there have been decisive victories in a few battles, such as the one against testicular cancer, the overall result is sobering. Hopes for an imminent cure had been raised among the public by the promises of molecular biology, combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening. These promises have manifested themselves in the widely proclaimed strategy of rationally targeted anticancer drug discovery, which may be summarized as the 'one-gene-one target-one drug' approach. Over the years, however, it has gradually become clear that, in most cases, treatment of cancer with a single drug may at best delay progression of the disease but is unlikely to lead to a cure. Thus, it appears that rationally targeted monotherapy will have to be replaced by rationally targeted combination therapy. Inhibitors of NF-kappaB look likely to become an important weapon in the anticancer combination therapy arsenal.