Hypercalciuria is the most common risk factor for kidney stones and has a substantial genetic component. The genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rat model displays complex changes in physiology involving intestine, bone, and kidney and overexpression of the vitamin D receptor, thereby reproducing the human phenotype of idiopathic hypercalciuria. Through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of rats that were bred from GHS female rats and normocalciuric Wistar Kyoto (WKY) male rats, loci that are linked to hypercalciuria and account for a 6 to eight-fold phenotypic difference between the GHS and WKY progenitors were mapped. GHS x WKY rats were backcrossed to breed for congenic rats with the chromosome 1 QTL HC1 on a normocalciuric WKY background. Ten generations of backcrosses produced N10F1 rats, which were intercrossed to produce rats that were homozygous for GHS loci in the HC1 region between markers D1Mit2 and D1Mit32. On a high-calcium diet (1.2% calcium), significantly different levels of calcium excretion were found between male congenic (1.67 +/- 0.71 mg/24 h) and male WKY control rats (0.78 +/- 0.19 mg/24 h) and between female congenic (3.11 +/- 0.90 mg/24 h) and female WKY controls (2.11 +/- 0.50 mg/24 h); the congenics preserve the calcium excretion phenotype of the GHS parent strain. Microarray expression analyses of the congenic rats, compared with WKY rats, showed that of the top 100 most changed genes, twice as many as were statistically expected mapped to chromosome 1. Of these, there is a clear bias in gene expression change for genes in the region of the HC1. Of >1100 gene groups analyzed, one third of the 50 most differentially expressed gene groups have direct or secondary action on calcium metabolism or transport. This is the first QTL for hypercalciuria to be isolated in a congenic animal.