Stem cell factor (SCF) is overexpressed by neurons following brain injury as well as by glioma cells; however, its role in gliomagenesis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SCF directly activates brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and induces a potent angiogenic response in vivo. Primary human gliomas express SCF in a grade-dependent manner and induce normal neurons to express SCF in brain regions infiltrated by glioma cells, areas that colocalize with prominent angiogenesis. Downregulation of SCF inhibits tumor-mediated angiogenesis and glioma growth in vivo, whereas overexpression of SCF is associated with shorter survival in patients with malignant gliomas. Thus, the SCF/c-Kit pathway plays an important role in tumor- and normal host cell-induced angiogenesis within the brain.