Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common motor neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been linked recently with autosomal-dominant parkinsonism that is clinically indistinguishable from typical, idiopathic, late-onset PD. Thus, the protein LRRK2 has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for treatment of PD. LRRK2 is extraordinarily large and complex, with multiple enzymatic and protein-interaction domains, each of which is targeted by pathogenic mutations in familial PD. This review places the PD-associated mutations of LRRK2 in a structural and functional framework, with the ultimate aim of deciphering the molecular basis of LRRK2-associated pathogenesis. This, in turn, should advance our understanding and treatment of familial and idiopathic PD.