The role of drug use outcome expectancies in substance abuse risk: an interactional-transformational model

Addict Behav. 2006 Nov;31(11):2038-62. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.02.004. Epub 2006 Apr 17.


While a variety of risk factors for substance abuse have been identified, the psychological mechanisms underlying the transmission of risk is unclear based on studies using traditional risk-outcome research designs. The present paper identifies drug use outcome expectancies as a common etiological mechanism involved in substance abuse risk. Existing literature findings are reviewed and integrated according to an interactional-transformational (IT) model of developmental psychopathology. This model identifies the preliminary (mediating) and secondary (moderating) role of drug expectancies as important operations involved in the development of substance use patterns. Advantages of the IT model over traditional trait-based or environmental models are discussed, along with implications for intervention and future research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Emotions
  • Family
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Models, Psychological
  • Motivation
  • Personality
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Substance-Related Disorders / prevention & control
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology*