Immunogenicity and efficacy of immunodeficiency virus-like particles pseudotyped with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus

Virology. 2006 Jul 20;351(1):133-44. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2006.03.009. Epub 2006 Apr 17.


Vaccination with exogenous antigens such as recombinant viral proteins, immunodeficiency virus-derived whole inactivated virus particles, or virus-like particles (VLP) has generally failed to provide sufficient protection in animal models for AIDS. Pseudotyping VLPs with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), which is known to mediate entry into dendritic cells, might allow more efficient stimulation of immune responses. Therefore, we pseudotyped noninfectious immunodeficiency virus-like particles with VSV-G and carried out a preliminary screen of their immunogenicity and vaccination efficacy. Incorporation of VSV-G into HIV-1 VLPs led to hundred-fold higher antibody titers to HIV-1 Gag and enhancement of T cell responses in mice. Repeated vaccination of rhesus monkeys for 65 weeks with VSV-G pseudotyped simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-like particles (VLP[G]) provided initial evidence for efficient suppression of viral load after mucosal challenge with the SIVmac239 virus. Challenge of monkeys after a 28 week vaccination regimen with VLP[G] led to a reduction in peak viremia, but persistent suppression of viral load was not achieved. Due to limitations in the number of animals available for this study, improved efficacy of VSV-G pseudotyped VLPs in nonhuman primates could not be demonstrated. However, mouse experiments revealed that pseudotyping of VLPs with fusion-competent VSV-G clearly improves their immunogenicity. Additional strategies, particularly adjuvants, should be considered to provide greater protection against a challenge with pathogenic immunodeficiency virus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • AIDS Vaccines / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • HIV Antibodies / blood
  • Humans
  • Macaca mulatta / immunology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology*
  • Mice
  • RNA, Viral / blood
  • Time Factors
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus*
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / immunology*
  • Viral Load
  • Virion / genetics
  • Virion / immunology


  • AIDS Vaccines
  • G protein, vesicular stomatitis virus
  • HIV Antibodies
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • RNA, Viral
  • Viral Envelope Proteins