Mechanistic principles of nanoparticle evolution to zeolite crystals

Nat Mater. 2006 May;5(5):400-8. doi: 10.1038/nmat1636. Epub 2006 Apr 16.


Precursor nanoparticles that form spontaneously on hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate in aqueous solutions of tetrapropylammonium (TPA) hydroxide evolve to TPA-silicalite-1, a molecular-sieve crystal that serves as a model for the self-assembly of porous inorganic materials in the presence of organic structure-directing agents. The structure and role of these nanoparticles are of practical significance for the fabrication of hierarchically ordered porous materials and molecular-sieve films, but still remain elusive. Here we show experimental findings of nanoparticle and crystal evolution during room-temperature ageing of the aqueous suspensions that suggest growth by aggregation of nanoparticles. A kinetic mechanism suggests that the precursor nanoparticle population is distributed, and that the 5-nm building units contributing most to aggregation only exist as an intermediate small fraction. The proposed oriented-aggregation mechanism should lead to strategies for isolating or enhancing the concentration of crystal-like nanoparticles.