Myc/Max/Mad in invertebrates: the evolution of the Max network

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006;302:235-53. doi: 10.1007/3-540-32952-8_9.


The Myc proto-oncogenes, their binding partner Max and their antagonists from the Mad family of transcriptional repressors have been extensively analysed in vertebrates. However, members of this network are found in all animals examined so far. Several recent studies have addressed the physiological function of these proteins in invertebrate model organisms, in particular Drosophila melanogaster. This review describes the structure of invertebrate Myc/Max/Mad genes and it discusses their regulation and physiological functions, with special emphasis on their essential role in the control of cellular growth and proliferation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / physiology
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / physiology
  • Drosophila melanogaster / genetics
  • Drosophila melanogaster / physiology
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Genes, Insect
  • Genes, myc*
  • Invertebrates / genetics*
  • Invertebrates / physiology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics*
  • Repressor Proteins / physiology
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Myc associated factor X
  • Repressor Proteins