This study provides an analysis of the vegetative incompatibility system in Serpula lacrymans (Basidiomycota), a genetic system used to recognize nonself in fungi. Seventy-five worldwide isolates could be grouped into eight vegetative compatibility (VC) types, some of them distributed on different continents. Mating studies combined with vegetative incompatibility analyses revealed that the vegetative incompatibility response between isolates mainly could be explained by two biallelic vegetative incompatibility (vic) loci. The frequency distributions of the interpreted vic alleles do not seem to support the idea of frequency-dependent or balancing selection acting on the vic loci. We find little genetic variation at the vic loci and in one of the loci there was a significant heterozyote deficiency among strains in the overall material. The results may be explained by a recent worldwide dispersal of a few S. lacrymans isolates and, correspondingly, only a few vic alleles are being maintained in these populations.