Functional signatures in antiviral T-cell immunity for monitoring virus-associated diseases

Nat Rev Immunol. 2006 May;6(5):417-23. doi: 10.1038/nri1840.


At present, we only have indirect knowledge of the protective role of antigen-specific T cells in human viral infections, and it has been difficult to show a direct correlation between quantitative and qualitative measures of T-cell immunity and virus-associated diseases. However, as described in this Opinion article, recent advances in the characterization of T-cell functions and in the development of standardized T-cell assays have led to the identification of distinct functional signatures of T-cell responses that correlate with levels of viral replication and disease activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte / immunology
  • Humans
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / virology*
  • Virus Diseases / immunology*
  • Virus Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Viruses / immunology*


  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte