The aim of the study was to assess the biocompatibility profile of a newly developed high-flux polysulfone dialyzer type (FX-class dialyzer). The new class of dialyzers incorporates a number of novel design features (including a new membrane) that have been developed specifically in order to enhance the removal of small- and middle-size molecules. The new FX dialyzer series was compared with the classical routinely used high-flux polysulfone F series of dialyzers. In an open prospective, randomized, crossover clinical study, concentrations of the C5a complement component, and leukocyte count in blood and various thrombogenicity parameters were evaluated before, and at 15 and 60 min of hemodialysis at both dialyzer inlet and outlet in 9 long-term hemodialysis patients using the FX60S dialyzers and, after crossover, the classical F60S, while in another 9 patients, the evaluation was made with the dialyzers used in reverse order. The comparison of dialyzers based on evaluation of the group including all procedures with the FX60S and the group including procedures with the F60S did not reveal significant differences in platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin times, plasma heparin levels, platelet factor-4, D-dimer, C5a, and leukocyte count at any point of the collecting period. Both dialyzer types showed a significant increase in the plasma levels of the thrombin-antithrombin III complexes; however, the measured levels were only slightly elevated compared with the upper end of the normal range. Biocompatibility parameters reflecting the behavior of platelets, fibrinolysis, complement activation, and leukopenia do not differ during dialysis with either the FX60S or the F60S despite their large differences in design and geometry features. Although coagulation activation, as evaluated by one of the parameters used, was slightly higher with the FX60S, it was still within the range seen with other highly biocompatible dialyzers and therefore is not indicative of any appreciable activation of the coagulation system. Thus, the incorporation of various performance-enhancing design features into the new FX class of dialyzers does not result in a deterioration of their biocompatibility profile, which is comparable to that of the classical F series of dialyzers.