Haemoglobins bearing reactive sulfhydryl groups have been shown to be able to interplay with glutathione in some detoxification processes. Blood from different mouse strains commonly used as experimental animal models, i.e., C57, DBA and ICR, was treated with oxidants with the aim of evaluating: (i) the involvement of protein SH groups in oxido-reductive reactions that are commonly carried out by glutathione and (ii) the impact of this phenomenon on blood-mediated metabolism of thiol reactants. All the main forms of glutathione (reduced, disulfide, and mixed disulfide with haemoglobin) were measured after oxidant treatment. Significant differences were found among the studied strains: DBA mice formed preferably mixed disulfides instead of glutathione disulfide, whereas the opposite behaviour was shown by C57 mice. Unexpectedly, the ICR strain resulted to be composed of three different subgroups (ICRa, ICRb, and ICRc), with the ICRa behaving similarly to the DBA strain, ICRc to the C57 strain, and ICRc showing an intermediate behaviour. These results are due to the different number of haemoglobin SH groups in the studied mouse strains. In particular, additional fast-reacting SH groups were found in haemoglobin from DBA, ICRa, and ICRb mice, but not in the C57 and ICRc strain. These differences were also reflected in the susceptibility of haemoglobin to dimerize and in its ability to react with S-nitrosocysteine. Because of the widely different reactivity of haemoglobin cysteinyl residues, the mouse strains examined are an interesting but complicated model in which to study the pharmacological and toxicological action of some drugs.