We describe the first genetic linkage map for Daphnia pulex using 185 microsatellite markers, including 115 new markers reported in this study. Our approach was to study the segregation of polymorphisms in 129 F2 progeny of one F1 hybrid obtained by crossing two genetically divergent lineages of Daphnia isolated from two Oregon populations. The map spanned 1206 Kosambi cM and had an average intermarker distance of 7 cM. Linkage groups ranged in size from 7 to 185 cM and contained 4 to 27 markers. The map revealed 12 linkage groups corresponding to the expected number of chromosomes and covers approximately 87% of the genome. Tests for random segregation of alleles at individual loci revealed that 21% of the markers showed significant transmission ratio distortion (primarily homozygote deficiency) likely due to markers being linked to deleterious recessive alleles. This map will become the anchor for the physical map of the Daphnia genome and will serve as a starting point for mapping single and quantitative trait loci affecting ecologically important phenotypes. By mapping 342 tentative orthologous gene pairs (Daphnia/Drosophila) into the Daphnia linkage map, we facilitate future comparative projects.