Background: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection found in particular geographic localities in Latin America. Treatment can last for up to two years is often associated with complications, including relapse, but people may die without it.
Objectives: To evaluate drugs used for treating paracoccidioidomycosis.
Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (January 2006), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2005, Issue 4), PubMed (1966 to January 2006), EMBASE (1974 to January 2006), LILACS (1982 to January 2006), conference proceedings, and reference lists. We also contacted researchers and pharmaceutical companies.
Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials comparing drugs for treating people with paracoccidioidomycosis.
Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality, and extracted data, including adverse events.
Main results: One trial with 42 participants met the inclusion criteria that compared imidazoles (itraconazole and ketoconazole) with sulfadiazine. No difference was detected for cure or clinical improvement, or serological titres after 10 months of treatment, and there was no difference detected in adverse events.
Authors' conclusions: The small number of participants and the short follow-up period impede definitive conclusions.