Response of CEDIA amphetamines assay after a single dose of bitter orange

Ther Drug Monit. 2006 Apr;28(2):252-4. doi: 10.1097/01.ftd.0000194028.89235.8d.


Bitter orange has recently been substituted as an ingredient in many "ephedra-free" dietary supplements used for weight loss. The primary active ingredient in bitter orange is synephrine. Previous reports have documented false-positive results from ephedrine with urine amphetamine assays. Because of the similarity in chemical structure of ephedrine and synephrine, it is hypothesized that ingestion of a bitter orange supplement may have the potential to cause false-positive results with urine amphetamine assays. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay after ingestion of bitter orange. Six healthy adult male volunteers were administered a single oral dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange, a 900-mg dietary supplement extract standardized to 6% synephrine. Urine specimens were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 hours post-administration. Additional urine specimens were collected from 1 subject at 9, 12, and 15 hours after administration. All specimens were analyzed by the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity and pH also were measured. All urine specimens demonstrated a negative response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity ranged from 1.007 to 1.028, and pH ranged from 5.0 to 7.0; thus, reducing the possibility that the negative results were caused by diluted specimens or reduced excretion of synephrine into alkaline urine. This information will be of value when health care providers or those who interpret drug screens are asked to provide consultation regarding the interference of bitter orange supplements with the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. A single-dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange was not found to cause a false-positive response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay in 6 healthy adult male volunteers.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Amphetamines / urine*
  • Citrus / chemistry*
  • Dietary Supplements / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Immunoassay / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / urine
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Substance Abuse Detection / methods


  • Amphetamines
  • Plant Extracts