Improving immunization coverage through budgeted microplans and sub-national performance agreements: early experience from Cambodia

Asia Pac J Public Health. 2006;18(1):29-38. doi: 10.1177/10105395060180010601.


In recent years, Cambodia has demonstrated significant success in specific aspects of immunization with gains through campaign efforts in measles control and polio eradication. In contrast, routine immunization rates have failed to improve over the last five years. In response, the National Immunization Program of the Ministry of Health developed a coverage improvement planning (CIP) process. This paper describes the CIP process in Cambodia, including identified barriers to and strategies for improving coverage. Immunization coverage rose in 8 of 10 pilot districts in the year following the introduction of CIP in 2003. The mean increase in DPT3 coverage across pilot districts on an annual basis was 16%, which provides encouraging early evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention. Factors associated with success in coverage improvement included: (1) development of a needs-based micro-plan, (2) application of performance-based contracting between levels of management, (3) investment in social mobilization, (4) securing finance for health outreach programs and (5) strengthened monitoring systems. Lessons learned will guide program expansion to improve immunization coverage nationally.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cambodia
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Health Policy
  • Health Services Accessibility / organization & administration*
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs / methods*
  • Immunization Programs / organization & administration*
  • Interinstitutional Relations
  • National Health Programs / organization & administration*
  • Program Development