ClpXP, a bacterial AAA+ protease, controls intracellular levels of many stress-response proteins. To investigate substrate profile changes caused by a specific environmental stress, quantitative mass spectrometry (SILAC) was used to analyze proteins trapped by ClpXP(trap) before and after DNA damage. The abundance of half of the trapped proteins changed more than 3-fold after damage. Overrepresented substrates included the DNA-repair proteins RecN and UvrA. Among SOS-response proteins, 25% were ClpXP substrates and, importantly, nearly all of the highly induced regulon members were rapidly degraded. Other proteins, including the stress regulator sigma(S), were underrepresented in ClpXP(trap) after DNA damage; overproduction experiments suggest that simple substrate competition does not account for this reduced recognition. We conclude that damage-response proteins are an unusually rapidly degraded family and that ClpXP has substantial capacity to process the influx of newly synthesized substrates while maintaining the ability to degrade its other substrates in an environmentally responsive manner.