The optimal stem cell source for stem cell gene therapy has yet to be determined. Most large-animal studies have utilized peripheral blood or marrow-derived cells collected after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-SCF) and stem cell factor (SCF); however, SCF is unavailable for clinical use in the United States and the European Union. A recent study in a competitive repopulation assay in the rhesus macaque showed very inefficient marking of G-CSF-mobilized (G/only) peripheral blood (G-PBSC) CD34(+) cells relative to G-CSF and SCF-mobilized cells using vectors with an amphotropic pseudotype. Because G-PBSC would be the preferred target cell population for most clinical stem cell gene therapy applications, we asked whether we could achieve efficient transduction and engraftment of G-PBSC using Phoenix-GALV-pseudotyped vectors. We transplanted three baboons with G/only mobilized CD34(+) cells transduced with GALV-pseudotyped retroviral vectors. We observed high-level, persistent engraftment of gene-modified G-PBSC in all animals with gene marking levels in granulocytes up to 60%. We analyzed amphotropic (PIT2) and GALV (PIT1) receptor expression in G/only cells and found preferential expression of PIT1 after G/only, which may explain the inferior results with amphotropic pseudotypes. These findings demonstrate that high stem cell gene transfer levels can be achieved using G-CSF-mobilized PBSC with Phoenix-GALV-pseudotyped vectors.