The serum molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in 70 Japanese adults (35 males and 35 females) not receiving any medical care or treatment were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Serum Mo concentration in the subjects ranged from <0.1 to 9.11 ng/mL. More than half (55.7%) of the subjects showed values of less than 1 ng/mL and only 6 (8.6%) subjects showed more than 2 ng/mL. The mean+/-SD, geometrical mean (GM), range of GM+/-geometrical SD (GSD) and median value were 1.21+/-1.34, 0.81, 0.30 to 2.16, and 0.90 ng/mL, respectively. Among age, body mass index and several serum biochemical values, activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase showed significant associations with serum Mo; 15 subjects suspected of having liver dysfunction showed significantly higher serum Mo than others. We propose a range of 0.10-4.73 ng/mL, estimated as a range of GM+/-2GSD of serum Mo in the remaining 55 subjects without liver dysfunction, as a reference range of serum Mo in Japanese healthy adults.