Neurogliaform cells of area 4 of the human motor cortex were found to express choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), gamma-aminobutyric acid, and calbindin. GABA- and calbindin-positive NGCs were mainly localized in layers II and VI and were relatively rare in layer I of the cortex. ChAT-positive NGCs were observed in the upper and middle thirds of layer II, occurring occasionally in layer I and the upper portion of layer III. Their numbers were low compared to those of GABA- and calbindin-positive NGCs in layers II/III. The dendrites of ChAT-positive NGCs were short and few in number. Axonal arborizations of neighboring ChAT-positive cells interpenetrated considerably so that each ChAT-positive cell body was normally surrounded by axonal trees of the parent and a few other ChAT-positive NGCs. NGC axon collaterals surrounded small neuropil areas containing perikarya presumptive pyramidal neurons. The findings are discussed in the context of information processing in cortical modules and interaction of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons.