Matrix effects on copper(II)phthalocyanine complexes. A combined continuous wave and pulse EPR and DFT study

Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2006 Apr 28;8(16):1942-53. doi: 10.1039/b516184c. Epub 2006 Mar 15.


The effect of the electron withdrawing or donating character of groups located at the periphery of the phthalocyanine ligand, as well as the influence of polar and nonpolar solvents are of importance for the redox chemistry of metal phthalocyanines. Continuous wave and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance and pulse electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy at X- and Q-band are applied to investigate the electronic structure of the complexes Cu(II)phthalocyanine (CuPc), copper(II) 2,9,16,23-tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (CuPc(t)), and copper(II) 1,2,3,4,8,9,10,11,15,16,17,18,22,23,24,25-hexadecafluoro-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (CuPc(F)) in various matrices. Isotope substitutions are used to determine the g values, the copper hyperfine couplings and the hyperfine interactions with the 14N, 1H and 19F nuclei of the macrocycle and the surrounding matrix molecules. Simulations and interpretations of the spectra are shown and discussed, and a qualitative analysis of the data using previous theoretical models is given. Density functional computations facilitate the interpretation of the EPR parameters. The experimental g, copper and nitrogen hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole values are found to be sensitive to changes of the solvent and the structure of the macrocycle. To elucidate the electronic, structural and bonding properties the changes in the g principal values are related to data from UV/Vis spectroscopy and to density functional theory (DFT) computations. The analysis of the EPR data indicates that the in-plane metal-ligand sigma bonding is more covalent for CuPc(t) in toluene than in sulfuric acid. Furthermore, the out-of-plane pi bonding is found to be less covalent in the case of a polar sulfuric acid environment than with nonpolar toluene or H2Pc environment, whereby the covalency of this bonding is increased upon addition of tert-butyl groups. No contribution from in-plane pi bonding is found.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cations, Divalent
  • Computer Simulation
  • Copper / chemistry*
  • Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy*
  • Indoles / chemistry*
  • Isoindoles
  • Isotopes / chemistry
  • Ligands
  • Models, Chemical
  • Organometallic Compounds / chemistry*
  • tert-Butyl Alcohol / chemistry


  • Cations, Divalent
  • Indoles
  • Isoindoles
  • Isotopes
  • Ligands
  • Organometallic Compounds
  • Copper
  • tert-Butyl Alcohol
  • phthalocyanine