While the impact of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 and other probiotics on cytokines has been shown in established colitis, the effects of B. infantis consumption in pre-inflammation of interleukin (IL)-10 knock-out (KO) mice and on the wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6 mice have not been well demonstrated. The objective of this study was to examine cytokine responses in mucosal and systemic lymphoid compartments of IL-10 KO mice early in disease and to compare with control WT mice. Mice were fed B. infantis or placebo for 5 weeks and culled prior to the onset of chronic intestinal inflammation (12-14 weeks). The spleen, Peyer's patches and intestinal mucosa were removed and stimulated with various bacterial stimuli. Cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. While basal intestinal and systemic cytokine profiles of WT and IL-10 KO mice were similar, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta was reduced in the spleen of IL-10 KO mice. Following probiotic consumption, interferon (IFN)-gamma was reduced in the Peyer's patch of both WT and IL-10 KO mice. Alterations in IFN-gamma in the Peyer's patches of WT mice (enhancement) versus IL-10 KO (reduction) were observed following in vitro stimulation with salmonella. Differential IL-12p40, CCL2 and CCL5 responses were also observed in IL-10 KO mice and WT mice. The cytokine profile of IL-10 KO mice in early disease was similar to that of WT mice. The most pronounced changes occurred in the Peyer's patch of IL-10 KO mice, suggesting a probiotic mechanism of action independent of IL-10. This study provides a rationale for the use of B. infantis 35624 for the treatment of gastrointestinal inflammation.