Elevated serum surfactant protein A and D in pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

Respirology. 2006 May;11(3):330-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2006.00844.x.


Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by widespread localization of calcispherites in the alveolar spaces. The authors report two cases of PAM, with markedly elevated sera concentrations of surfactant protein-A and surfactant protein-D, which showed a tendency to increase as the disease progressed. Therefore, surfactant protein-A and surfactant protein-D may function as serum markers to monitor the disease activity and progression of PAM.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biopsy
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lithiasis / blood*
  • Lithiasis / diagnostic imaging
  • Lithiasis / pathology
  • Lung Diseases / blood*
  • Lung Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung Diseases / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pulmonary Alveoli*
  • Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A / blood*
  • Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D / blood*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Biomarkers
  • Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A
  • Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D