The cellular localization of DARPP-32, a dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kD, enriched in dopamine-innervated brain regions, was investigated in the human parathyroid gland using indirect immunofluorescence histochemistry. Monoclonal antibodies were used to demonstrate DARPP-32-like immunoreactivity (LI) in chief cells of the normal human parathyroid gland and in cells of human parathyroid adenoma. Direct double-labelling revealed coexistence of DARPP-32-LI with parathyroid hormone (PTH)-LI. It has previously been demonstrated that dopamine D1-receptors are present in the parathyroid gland and that dopamine and D1-agonists stimulate the release of PTH. The present results suggest that DARPP-32 may play a role in the cellular mechanisms leading to dopamine-induced PTH secretion.