To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer metastasis and search for potential markers for metastatic progression, we have developed a highly metastatic variant of human MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cell line through in vivo stepwise selection of pulmonary metastatic cells caused by parental MDA-MB-435 cells in the athymic mice. Comparative proteomic analysis using 2-DE and LC-IT-MS revealed that 102 protein spots were reproducibly altered more than three-fold between the selected variant and its parental counterpart. Eleven differentially expressed protein spots were identified with high confidence using SEQUEST with uninterpreted tandem mass raw data. Cathepsin D precursor, peroxiredoxin 6 (PDX6), heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), HSP60, tropomyosin 1 (TPM1), TPM2, TPM3, TPM4, 14-3-3 protein epsilon, and tumor protein D54 were up-regulated in the highly metastatic variant, whereas alpha B-crystalline (CRAB) was only detected in its parental counterpart. Differential expression was confirmed for four proteins including PDX6, CRAB, TPM4, and HSP60 by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting analysis in our model. Immunohistochemical analysis in 80 breast cancer donors demonstrated a significant association of TPM4 (p = 0.002), HSP60 (p = 0.001), PDX6 (p = 0.002) but not CRAB (p = 0.113) staining with the presence of lymph node metastasis. In addition, TPM4 staining was also associated with clinical stage (p = 0.000), but no significant association was found between TPM4, PDX6, CRAB, and HSP60 expression and tumor size, hormone receptor, and HER-2 status (p > 0.05). The functional implication of these identified proteins was also discussed. These proteomic data are valuable and informative for understanding breast cancer metastasis and searching for potential markers for metastatic progression.