The distribution of alleles and genotypes of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene has been studied in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, n = 298) and healthy individuals (n = 237) from two ethnic groups (Tatars and Russians) living in Republic Bashkortostan. Statistically significant differences in the distribution of DBP gene genotypes between Tatars and Russians (chi2 = 8.854, df = 5, P = 0.04) were revealed. The pattern of allele's distribution within DBP gene was similar in healthy control subjects of both ethnic groups, with gradient reduction in row GC*1S> GC*1F> GC*2. The most common genotypes were: GC*1F/1S in Tatars (36.79%) and GC*1S/2 in Russians (34.62%). It has been shown, that Tatars with genotype GC*1F/1S have a lower risk of COPD development: the frequency of GC*1F/1S genotype in COPD patients was significantly lower than in healthy individuals (19.85% versus 36.79%; chi2 = 7.622, P = 0.0067, Pcor = 0.0335; OR = 0.42 CI 95% 0.22-0.79). At the same time, COPD patients from the same group had higher frequency of GC* 1F/2 genotype than healthy individuals (19.08% versus 8.49%; chi2 = 4.52, P = 0.033, Pcor = 0.165; OR = 2.54 CI 95% 1.067-6.20). In Russian population the distribution of alleles and genotypes of DBP gene were similar in COPD patients and healthy individuals.