To examine the causes of neonatal readmission within two weeks of discharge and identify the factors associated with neonatal readmission, newborns readmitted to Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang (KMHK) Hospital within two weeks of discharge from our nursery between October 2001 and November 2003 were studied retrospectively. Of the 1099 deliveries during the study period, there were 63 newborns readmitted to KMHK Hospital within 14 days of discharge, with a rate of 5.7%. The control group consisted of a systematic sampling of newborns delivered over the same period that were not readmitted (n=74). The diagnoses of readmission included jaundice (73.0%), fever and suspected sepsis (19.0%), enteritis (4.8%), and others (3.2%). Factors associated with readmission included length of stay in nursery less than 72 hours, exclusive breast feeding, more body weight loss, and higher bilirubin level at discharge from nursery. After multiple logistic regression analysis, length of stay in nursery less than 72 hours, exclusive breast feeding and higher bilirubin level at discharge from nursery were the significant risk factors for neonatal readmission.