Accelerated atherosclerosis, arterial thromboembolism, and preventive strategies in systemic lupus erythematosus

Scand J Rheumatol. 2006 Mar-Apr;35(2):85-95. doi: 10.1080/03009740600601526.


With improved disease survival, arterial thromboembolism has become an important cause of morbidity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A number of conventional and non-conventional risk factors are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Regular surveillance and control of traditional risk factors is mandatory, and so is the appropriate use of the statins, anti-malarial agents, anti-platelet agents, and anti-coagulation for primary and secondary prevention of arterial thromboembolism in SLE patients. Judicious use of corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, hormonal replacement therapy, and the cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors is equally important.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Atherosclerosis / epidemiology
  • Atherosclerosis / etiology
  • Atherosclerosis / prevention & control*
  • Calcineurin Inhibitors
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use*
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / complications
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / drug therapy*
  • Survival Rate
  • Thromboembolism / epidemiology
  • Thromboembolism / etiology
  • Thromboembolism / prevention & control*


  • Calcineurin Inhibitors
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • Glucocorticoids