Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) seropositivity is negatively correlated with the development of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer. We have begun analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying AAV2-mediated onco-suppression through cell cycle regulation in HPV-infected keratinocytes isolated from a low-grade cervical lesion. AAV2 superinfection of HPV type 31b (HPV31b)-positive cells at early times postinfection resulted in degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21(WAF1) protein in a proteosome-dependent manner. Downstream consequences of lowering p21(WAF1) levels included a proportional loss of cyclin E/CDK2 complexes bound to p21(WAF1). The loss of stable p21(WAF1)/cyclin E/CDK2 complexes coincided with an increase in CDK2-associated kinase activity and cyclin E levels. Both events have the potential to enhance the G(1)/S transition point mediated by active cyclin E/CDK2 complexes. Concurrently, cyclin A and E2F levels were decreased, conditions reminiscent of delayed entrance into the S phase of the cell cycle. On the other hand, infection of primary human foreskin keratinocytes with AAV2 resulted in upregulation of p21(WAF1) protein levels, reminiscent of a block in G(1) phase progression. We propose that by down regulating p21(WAF1), AAV2 initiates cell cycle activities leading to enhanced G(1)/S phase-like conditions which may be favorable for AAV2-specific functions and may lead to downstream interference with HPV-associated cervical cancer progression.