Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism are prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are an important cause of morbidity, decreased quality of life, and extraskeletal calcification that have been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. These disturbances have traditionally been termed renal osteodystrophy and classified based on bone biopsy. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) sponsored a Controversies Conference on Renal Osteodystrophy to (1) develop a clear, clinically relevant, and internationally acceptable definition and classification system, (2) develop a consensus for bone biopsy evaluation and classification, and (3) evaluate laboratory and imaging markers for the clinical assessment of patients with CKD. It is recommended that (1) the term renal osteodystrophy be used exclusively to define alterations in bone morphology associated with CKD, which can be further assessed by histomorphometry, and the results reported based on a unified classification system that includes parameters of turnover, mineralization, and volume, and (2) the term CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) be used to describe a broader clinical syndrome that develops as a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD, which is manifested by abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism and/or extra-skeletal calcification. The international adoption of these recommendations will greatly enhance communication, facilitate clinical decision-making, and promote the evolution of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines worldwide.