The aim of this study was to screen genetic as well as expression alterations in prostate cancer. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to a 16K cDNA microarray was performed to analyze DNA sequence copy number alterations in 5 prostate cancer cell lines and 13 xenografts. The aCGH confirmed the previously implicated common gains and losses, such as gains at 1q, 7, 8q, 16p and 17q and losses at 2q, 4p/q, 6q, 8p, 13q, 16q, 17p and 18q, which have previously been identified by chromosomal CGH (cCGH). Because of the higher resolution of aCGH, the minimal commonly altered regions were significantly narrowed-down. For example, the gain of 8q was mapped to three independent regions, 8q13.3-q21.11, 8q22.2 and 8q24.13-q24.3. In addition, a novel recurrent gain at 9p13-q21 was identified. The concomitant expression analysis indicated that genome-wide DNA sequence copy number (gene dosage) was significantly associated with the expression level (p < 0.0001). The analyses indicated several individual genes whose expression was associated with the gene copy number. For example, gains of PTK2 and FZD6, were associated with the increased expression, whereas losses of TNFRSF10B (alias DR5) and ITGA4 with decreased expression. In conclusion, the aCGH mapping data will aid in the identification of genes altered in prostate cancer. The combined expression and copy number analysis suggested that even a low-level copy number change may have significant effect on gene expression, and thus on the development of prostate cancer.