Numerous sets of diagnostic criteria have sought to define chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and randomized trials and systematic reviews of treatment have been published. The objective is to prepare consensus guidelines on the definition, investigation and treatment of CIDP. Disease experts and a patient representative considered references retrieved from MEDLINE and Cochrane Systematic Reviews in May 2004 and prepared statements which were agreed in an iterative fashion. The Task Force agreed on good practice points to define clinical and electrophysiological diagnostic criteria for CIDP with or without concomitant diseases and investigations to be considered. The principal treatment recommendations were: (1) intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) or corticosteroids should be considered in sensory and motor CIDP (level B recommendation); (2) IVIg should be considered as the initial treatment in pure motor CIDP (Good Practice Point); (3) if IVIg and corticosteroids are ineffective plasma exchange (PE) should be considered (level A recommendation); (4) If the response is inadequate or the maintenance doses of the initial treatment are high, combination treatments or adding an immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory drug should be considered (Good Practice Point); (5) Symptomatic treatment and multidisciplinary management should be considered (Good Practice Point).