Axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction and is associated with decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) as measured with 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Fluoxetine stimulates astrocytic glycogenolysis, which serves as an energy source for axons. Eleven patients with MS received fluoxetine orally 20 mg a day during the first week, and 40 mg a day during the second week. The mean NAA/Creatine ratio in cerebral white matter of the MS patients increased from 1.77 at baseline to 1.84 at the end of the second week (p=0.007). These findings show evidence for a reversible axonal dysfunction in patients with MS and provide a rationale for investigating whether fluoxetine has neuroprotective effects in MS.