The need to focus international attention on the continuing problem of tuberculosis in animals of economic interest, can hardly be over-emphasized. Mycobacterium bovis, is the most universal pathogen among the mycobacteria and produces progressive disease in most domestic animals (especially those of economic interest) and in humans. The prevalence of animal tuberculosis therefore, has relevance for both human and veterinary medical practitioners and decision makers on the strategic approach to be adopted in the control of the disease. There is the tendency to underestimate the ability of M. bovis to produce tuberculosis or to assume that it has been totally eliminated and that potential exposure to this pathogen may be a remote occurrence. This perception could have a direct implication for the control of the disease at source, that is in domestic animals. The current epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection raises the issue of what future impact this epidemic may have if the incidence of M. bovis infection in humans increases, when control in livestock especially cattle, is neglected by both developed and developing countries.