Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) exacerbations due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are routinely encountered. Treatment often involves intravenous antibiotics that provide only transient benefits. Mupirocin has well-recognized antistaphylococcal activity, and its nasal formulation is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the eradication of nasal colonization with MRSA.
Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the use of mupirocin nasal irrigations for the treatment of CRS exacerbations due to MRSA.
Materials and methods: Charts of patients who received mupirocin nasal irrigations for MRSA exacerbations of CRS between January 2000 and October 2003 were reviewed.
Results: Forty-two MRSA-positive cultures were obtained from 24 patients (mean age, 61 years; range, 38-82 years; 15 women and 6 men). Twenty-eight episodes were treated with mupirocin nasal irrigations and doxycycline; 4 were treated with mupirocin nasal irrigations and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 7 episodes were treated with mupirocin nasal irrigations alone. Patients were reevaluated at approximately 4 to 6 weeks. Repeat cultures were not obtained in 12 patients (because of clinical and endoscopic resolution). Adequate follow-up was unavailable for 3 patients, and of the 27 repeat cultures, only 1 grew MRSA. Twelve patients had at least one recurrence, with a mean number of episodes of 1.75 (range, 1-8 episodes). The mean follow-up was 11.8 months (range, 3-27 months).
Conclusions: Mupirocin nasal irrigations may avoid the need for intravenous antibiotics, which often provide temporary benefits and entail greater cost and morbidity. Thus, mupirocin nasal irrigations may provide a relatively simple means for the management of MRSA exacerbations of CRS.