Organ-specific expression profiles of rat mammary gland, liver, and lung tissues treated with targretin, 9-cis retinoic acid, and 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide

Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 Apr;5(4):1060-72. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0322.


A rexinoid, targretin, and two retinoids, 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA) and 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4HPR), were examined for their effects on gene expression in rat mammary gland, liver, and lung tissues. The chemopreventive effects of these agents have largely been attributed to their ability to interact with retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and/or retinoid X receptors (RXR). Targretin interacts with the RXR receptors. 9cRA interacts with both the RAR and RXR receptors, whereas 4HPR has a moderate affinity primarily for RAR gamma. Based on previous studies on mammary chemoprevention, targretin (150 mg/kg diet), 9cRA (100 mg/kg diet), and 4HPR (782 mg/kg diet), were administered to rats continually in their diet for 7 days. Tissue- and agent-specific expression differences were determined by comparing tissues from treated rats with those from rats given a control diet. There were significantly more changes associated with targretin than 9cRA or 4HPR. Only a limited number of expression changes were found with 4HPR treatment. For each organ, targretin- and 9cRA-treated tissues clustered closely together, whereas 4HPR-treated tissues clustered with the tissues from the control diet group. In contrast to 9cRA treatment, targretin treatment altered genes that involved fatty acid metabolism and modulation of various cytochromes P450 in the liver, clearly demonstrating the very disparate nature of these two retinoids. These expression signatures could provide useful pharmacodynamic biomarkers for retinoid treatment and chemoprevention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology
  • Bexarotene
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / physiology*
  • Lung / drug effects
  • Lung / physiology*
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / drug effects
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / physiology*
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Rats
  • Tetrahydronaphthalenes / pharmacology*


  • Anticarcinogenic Agents
  • Tetrahydronaphthalenes
  • Bexarotene