Objective: To examine lifestyle factors associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to explore the relationships between MetS and non-traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors [adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum amyloid A (SAA)] in an isolated Aboriginal Canadian community.
Research methods and procedures: Data were obtained from 360 non-diabetic adults participating in a population-based study of Aboriginal Canadians. Fasting samples were drawn for glucose, insulin, lipids, adiponectin, leptin, CRP, IL-6, and SAA. Percentage body fat was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Past year physical activity and fitness level were assessed. MetS was diagnosed according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program, the World Health Organization, and the International Diabetes Federation.
Results: The results showed that older age, higher percentage body fat, and lower fitness levels were associated with increased odds of MetS regardless of MetS definition and subject gender. Past year physical activity was independently related with the World Health Organization-MetS in male subjects. Subjects with MetS had significantly higher leptin, CRP, IL-6, and SAA levels and lower adiponectin levels; however, only adiponectin remained significantly low after adjustment for age and percentage body fat.
Discussion: The study showed that higher percentage body fat and lower physical activity and fitness were associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in this Aboriginal community and that hypoadiponectinemia was independently associated with MetS.