Long-term personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution among school children, a validation study

Sci Total Environ. 2006 Sep 15;368(2-3):565-73. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.03.034. Epub 2006 May 2.


Several recent studies suggest an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and health. Most studies use indicators of exposure such as outdoor air pollution or traffic density on the street of residence. Little information is available about the validity of these measurements as an estimate of long-term personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution. In this pilot study, we assessed outdoor and personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children living in homes on streets with different degree of traffic intensity. The personal exposure of 14 children aged 9-12 years to 'soot', NO(x) (NO and NO(2)) was assessed in Amsterdam between March and June 2003. Each child's personal exposure was monitored during four repeated 48-h periods. Concurrently, in- and outdoor NO(x) measurements were carried out at the school and at the home of each participating child. Measurements were supplemented by a questionnaire on time activity patterns and possible indoor sources. Flow-controlled battery operated pumps in a made-to-fit backpack were used to sample personal exposure to 'soot', determined from the reflectance of PM(2.5) filters. Exposure to NO(x) was assessed using Ogawa passive samplers. Children living near busy roads were found to have a 35% higher personal exposure to 'soot' than children living at an urban background location, despite that all children attended the same school that was located away from busy roads. Smaller contrasts in personal exposure were found for NO (14%), NO(2) (15%) and NO(x) (14%). This finding supports the use of 'living near a busy road' as a measure of exposure in epidemiological studies on the effects of traffic-related air pollution in children.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants / analysis*
  • Air Pollution / analysis
  • Carbon / analysis*
  • Child
  • Dust / analysis*
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Humans
  • Netherlands
  • Nitrogen Oxides / analysis*
  • Vehicle Emissions*


  • Air Pollutants
  • Dust
  • Nitrogen Oxides
  • Vehicle Emissions
  • Carbon