Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation

Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2006;57:431-49. doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105231.


Cytokinins (CKs) play a crucial role in various phases of plant growth and development, but the basic molecular mechanisms of their biosynthesis and signal transduction only recently became clear. The progress was achieved by identifying a series of key genes encoding enzymes and proteins controlling critical steps in biosynthesis, translocation, and signaling. Basic schemes for CK homeostasis and root/shoot communication at the whole-plant level can now be devised. This review summarizes recent findings on the relationship between CK structural variation and activity, distinct features in CK biosynthesis between higher plants and Agrobacterium infected plants, CK translocation at whole-plant and cellular levels, and CKs as signaling molecules for nutrient status via root-shoot communication.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biological Transport
  • Cytokinins / biosynthesis*
  • Cytokinins / chemistry
  • Cytokinins / metabolism*
  • Molecular Structure


  • Cytokinins