Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum induces gene expression changes in human dendritic cells and promotes T helper 1 immune response in BALB/c mice

Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;70(2):637-44. doi: 10.1124/mol.106.022327. Epub 2006 May 2.


Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom in China and other Asian countries. The polysaccharide from G. lucidum (PS-G) is a branched (1-->6)-beta-d-glucan moiety. In this study, we examined the effects of PS-G on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) with microarray analysis by Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip. In comparing mean signal values between PS-G-treated DCs with untreated DCs, 3477 (17%) probe sets were up-regulated, and 4418 (19%) probe sets were down-regulated after PS-G treatment. These results demonstrate that genes associated with phagocytosis (CD36, CD206, and CD209) are decreased and genes associated with proinflammatory chemokines (CCL20, CCL5, and CCL19), cytokines [interleukin (IL)-27, IL-23A, IL-12A, and IL-12B], and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD54, CD80, and CD86) are increased. To confirm the microarray data, we further investigated the effect of PS-G on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production in BALB/c mice. Immunization with ovalbumin (OVA)/PS-G showed that the anti-OVA IgG2a levels were significantly increased compared with OVA alone in BALB/c mice. Together, our data demonstrate that PS-G could effectively promote the activation and maturation of immature DCs, preferring a T helper 1 response. Furthermore, the results also demonstrate that the data from microarray analysis could be correlated with the in vivo effect of the immune-enhancing compound.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Dendritic Cells / drug effects*
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-12 / physiology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Ovalbumin / immunology
  • Polysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Receptors, Chemokine / genetics
  • Receptors, Cytokine / genetics
  • Reishi / chemistry*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Th1 Cells / drug effects*
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / immunology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Polysaccharides
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Receptors, Cytokine
  • Interleukin-12
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Ovalbumin