Reports relating hyperuricemia and hypertension have been filed for many decades. Nevertheless, controversy remains concerning serum uric acid concentration as an independent risk factor underlying coronary heart disease (CHD) and essential hypertension or as an indirect marker of renovascular involvement. Earlier studies in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients demonstrated that serum uric acid concentration was closely related to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations, suggesting that it is an excellent marker of vascular involvement. Our data from clinical studies and in an animal model of severe hypertensive nephrosclerosis have strengthened this concept. Conversely, other reports have suggested that uric acid may be a pathogenetic factor. Supporting arguments for this theory maintain that experimental hyperuricemia induces hypertension and renal damage. Epidemiologically, hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension, CHD, renal disease, toxemia of pregnancy, and other outcomes, although mechanisms remain unclear. Additionally, there are no available data on the effects of lowering uric acid on pressure control and organ protection.