Human rhinoviruses (HRV), members of the Picornaviridae family, are comprised of over 100 different virus serotypes. HRV represent the single most important etiological agents of the common cold [Arruda, E., Pitkaranta, A., Witek Jr., T.J., Doyle, C.A., Hayden, F.G., 1997. Frequency and natural history of rhinovirus infections in adults during autumn. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 2864-2868; Couch, R.B., 1990. Rhinoviruses. In: Fields, B.N., Knipe, D.M. (Eds.), Virology. Raven Press, New York, pp. 607-629; Turner, R.B., 2001. The treatment of rhinovirus infections: progress and potential. Antivir. Res. 49 (1), 1-14]. Although HRV-induced upper respiratory illness is often mild and self-limiting, the socioeconomic impact caused by missed school or work is enormous and the degree of inappropriate antibiotic use is significant. It has been estimated that upper respiratory disease accounts for at least 25 million absences from work and 23 million absences of school annually in the United States [Anzueto, A., Niederman, M.S., 2003. Diagnosis and treatment of rhinovirus respiratory infections. Chest 123 (5), 1664-1672; Rotbart, H.A., 2002. Treatment of picornavirus infections. Antivir. Res. 53, 83-98]. Increasing evidences also describe the link between HRV infection and more serious medical complications. HRV-induced colds are the important predisposing factors to acute otitis media, sinusitis, and are the major factors in the induction of exacerbations of asthma in adults and children. HRV infections are also associated with lower respiratory tract syndromes in individuals with cystic fibrosis, bronchitis, and other underlying respiratory disorders [Anzueto, A., Niederman, M.S., 2003. Diagnosis and treatment of rhinovirus respiratory infections. Chest 123 (5), 1664-1672; Gern, J.E., Busse, W.W., 1999. Association of rhinovirus infections with asthma. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12 (1), 9-18; Pitkaranta, A., Arruda, E., Malmberg, H., Hayden, F.G., 1997. Detection of rhinovirus in sinus brushings of patients with acute community-acquired sinusitis by reverse transcription-PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 1791-1793; Pitkaranta, A., Virolainen, A., Jero, J., Arruda, E., Hayden, F.G., 1998. Detection of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and coronavirus infections in acute otitis media by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Pediatrics 102, 291-295; Rotbart, H.A., 2002. Treatment of picornavirus infections. Antivir. Res. 53, 83-98]. To date, no effective antiviral therapies have been approved for either the prevention or treatment of diseases caused by HRV infection. Thus, there still exists a significant unmet medical need to find agents that can shorten the duration of HRV-induced illness, lessen the severity of symptoms, minimize secondary bacterial infections and exacerbations of underlying disease and reduce virus transmission. Although effective over-the-counter products have been described that alleviate symptoms associated with the common cold [Anzueto, A., Niederman, M.S., 2003. Diagnosis and treatment of rhinovirus respiratory infections. Chest 123 (5), 1664-1672; Gwaltney, J.M., 2002a. Viral respiratory infection therapy: historical perspectives and current trials. Am. J. Med. 22 (112 Suppl. 6A), 33S-41S; Turner, R.B., 2001. The treatment of rhinovirus infections: progress and potential. Antivir. Res. 49 (1), 1-14; Sperber, S.J., Hayden, F.G., 1988. Chemotherapy of rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32, 409-419], this review will primarily focus on the discovery and development of those agents that directly or indirectly impact virus replication specifically highlighting new advances and/or specific challenges with their development.