ERKs, extracellular signal-regulated MAP-2 kinases

Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1991 Dec;3(6):1025-32. doi: 10.1016/0955-0674(91)90124-h.


A family of protein kinases, known alternatively as microtubule-associated protein-2/myelin basic protein kinases or extracellular signal-regulated kinases, is activated by numerous hormones, growth factors and other extracellular stimuli. At least two members of this family function as intermediate kinases in protein phosphorylation cascades. Their mechanisms of activation may involve autophosphorylation, which occurs on both threonine and tyrosine residues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Extracellular Space
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • Growth Substances / metabolism
  • Hormones / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism*
  • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Threonine / metabolism
  • Tyrosine / metabolism


  • Growth Substances
  • Hormones
  • Threonine
  • Tyrosine
  • Protein Kinases
  • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3