C. Elegans Kallmann Syndrome Protein KAL-1 Interacts With Syndecan and Glypican to Regulate Neuronal Cell Migrations

Dev Biol. 2006 Jun 15;294(2):352-65. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.02.036. Epub 2006 May 3.


The anosmin-1 protein family regulates cell migration, axon guidance, and branching, by mechanisms that are not well understood. We show that the C. elegans anosmin-1 ortholog KAL-1 promotes migrations of ventral neuroblasts prior to epidermal enclosure. KAL-1 does not modulate FGF signaling in neuroblast migration and acts in parallel to other neuroblast migration pathways. Defects in heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis or in specific HS modifications disrupt neuroblast migrations and affect the KAL-1 pathway. KAL-1 binds the cell surface HS proteoglycans syndecan/SDN-1 and glypican/GPN-1. This interaction is mediated via HS side chains and requires specific HS modifications. SDN-1 and GPN-1 are expressed in ventral neuroblasts and have redundant roles in KAL-1-dependent neuroblast migrations. Our findings suggest that KAL-1 interacts with multiple HSPGs to promote cell migration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / cytology
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / embryology
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / physiology*
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / genetics
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / metabolism*
  • Carbohydrate Sequence
  • Cell Movement / physiology*
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism*
  • Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans / genetics
  • Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans / metabolism*
  • Heparitin Sulfate / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Kallmann Syndrome
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism*
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Phenotype
  • Proteoglycans / genetics
  • Proteoglycans / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Syndecans


  • ANOS1 protein, human
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
  • KAL-1 protein, C elegans
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Proteoglycans
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Syndecans
  • Heparitin Sulfate