Scedosporium apiospermum is a saprophytic ubiquitous filamentous fungus. It can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, from localized to invasive infections. S apiospermum has been described as one of the major fungal agents of chronic colonization of airways in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Invasive infections due to S apiospermum are only rarely reported in CF after lung transplantation. A 26-year-old woman with CF and chronic bronchial colonization by S apiospermum developed bilateral chorioretinitis and subcutaneous nodules 4 weeks after double-lung transplantation (LTx). Isolates of S apiospermum from sputum samples before and after LTx and from vitreal fluid were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The patient was treated with voriconazole (VRC). The patient improved with VRC given orally for 6 months. Two days after VRC discontinuation, she developed sub-acute meningitis (isolation of S apiospermum from the cerebrospinal fluid). She was again given VRC, but died 23 days later from uncontrolled fungal infection. Molecular typing of clinical isolates of S apiospermum performed by RAPD demonstrated that all isolates belonged to the same genotype. S apiospermum is a frequent, but late colonizing fungal agent in CF patients. In the case of LTx, these patients can develop invasive infection due to the colonizing strain, as confirmed by molecular typing.